A Journey Through Time and Space: A research paper on black holes, white holes, wormholes, and the possibility of time travel.

“Who are we? We find that we live on an insignificant planet of a humdrum star lost in a galaxy tucked away in some forgotten corner of a universe in which there are far more galaxies than people.” Carl Sagan was the man who had once spoke this quote. If we take time to look at the big picture, the human race and the Earth we inhabit really is insignificant when it comes to the whole scheme of the universe. This is one of the reasons why so many people wish time travel and travelling to other universes were possible. We wish to figure out the universe in entirety, and we want to know if we’re alone or if there’s more than our version of “life.” Currently, time travel and travelling to other universes is nothing more than fiction that movies like Star Wars and books like The Time Machine by H.G. Wells have created. However, there are some real, as well as some theoretical, objects in space that could, theoretically, allow us to travel throughout time and space. These objects are: black holes, white holes, and wormholes. In this paper I will discuss what these objects are, how they work, and how they could, together, allow space travel.

A black hole is an invisible object in space that is so compact that, within a certain distance of it, even light isn’t fast enough to escape. Black holes are thought to be born from stars or other massive objects that collapse from their own gravity to form an object whose density is infinite. Once all the dying stars’ fuel for nuclear burning has run out, what’s life is the core; In a black hole, otherwise known as a singularity. The space surrounding the singularity, where the escape velocity must be equivalent to the speed of light is what’s called the event horizon; or “the point of no return.” (Seidel).

Speculation of black holes has dated back as early as 1783 when John Michell theorized that there might be an object massive enough to have an escape velocity greater than the speed of light. Simon Pierre LaPlace theorized not long afterwards that it is possible that the largest luminous bodies in the universe would be invisible (Is a Black Hole Really A Hole?). Black holes really came to light, though, after Albert Einstein developed and published his theory of relativity in 1915, in which he predicted space time curvature; going against Newtonian physics, which stated that all things in space travelled a straight line unless acted upon.

There are four different kinds of black holes that we know of: Static, Charged, Rotating, as well as a Supermassive. All four kinds are made up of the same three elements: The Photon Sphere, the Event Horizon, and the Singularity. There are always exceptions, though, which will be covered in greater detail later in this paper. The Static black hole, which is often referred to as Schwarzschild black holes after Karl Schwarzschild postulated them in 1916. The static black holes are the simplest of the bunch because they are simply defined as having a mass but no electric charge or angular momentum; when something doesn’t have angular momentum, that simply means that it is stationary and doesn’t spin (Research Paper on Black Holes). This type of black hole is said to have one photon sphere, one event horizon and one singularity. It’s also the only vacuum theorized that is spherically symmetric; meaning there is no observable difference between the gravitational field of this type of black hole and any other object with the same symmetry and mass.

The next kind of black hole, the charged black hole, is one which possesses an electric charge. It is said to have one photon sphere, one singularity, but two event horizons. Hans Reissner and Gunnar Nordstrom are responsible for theorizing this type of black hole and coming up with an equation to explain its possible existence. They discovered that if a small charge is added to a black hole, the event horizon would shrink and a second, inner horizon would form just above the singularity.

The more charge that this type of black hole had, the smaller the outer horizon becomes, while the inner horizon expands (Jillian). What happens, then, if the magnitude of the charge becomes as great as its mass? Reissner and Nordstrom predicted that both horizons would eventually vanish and leave a naked singularity. Having a black hole with no outer or inner horizon and simply a singularity would create a problem for those people who would attempt time travel. You would have absolutely no warning as to where the black hole began and you would instantly be sucked in and ripped apart by the hole’s tidal forces.

The third type is called the Rotating black hole and was proposed in 1963 by New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr. His concept hinges on neutron stars, which are massive collapsed stars the size of Manhattan but with the mass greater than that of Earth’s sun (Kaku). Kerr postulated that if these dying stars collapsed into a rotating ring of neutron stars, their force would prevent them from combining into a singularity. Since this black hole wouldn’t have a singularity, Kerr believed it would be safe to enter without the fear of the infinite gravitational force pulling and stretching you until you were ripped to shreds. Because of this reason, this is the only type of black hole that is used when the theoretical discussion of time travel arises (Bonsor and Lamb).

The Supermassive black hole is the final type. Theoretically, it could be any of the three types: static, charged, or rotating. The only difference is that it is much, much larger. Supermassive black holes range anywhere from one million to billions of times the mass of our Sun (Research Paper on Black Holes).

According to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, black holes (at least the static ones), do exist in space. Applying these black holes to time travel, though, seem to be impossible currently because of his Theory of Relativity, as well as the principles of the speed of light. The Theory of Relativity states that a particle (that has rest mass) with a subluminal velocity needs infinite energy to accelerate to the speed of light. However, to allow for time travel, one would have to be travelling faster than the speed of light, which is currently impossible (Bonsor and Lamb).

A stellar-mass black hole in orbit with a companion star located about 6,000 light years from Earth.

White holes are often called “anti-black holes.” This is because they’re black holes running backwards in time. Just as black holes swallow things irretrievably, white holes only spit things out. These objects would have a negative gravity and emit an extremely bright white light. However, it should be noted that white holes violate the second law of thermodynamics, and are only a thing of speculation (Hamilton).

Karl Schwarzschild not only proposed his own theory of a black hole with his Schwarzschild metric, his system also consists of a white hole and two universes connected by a wormhole (a topic which will be covered in just a few paragraphs).

In order for white holes to be of any use when it comes to time travel, parallel universes must exist. These parallel universes would exist alongside one another in hyperspace (Mendez). They would not be on the same plane of space; there would be no way of reaching them with simply a spaceship because they are not in the same dimension. Since they are parallel, they are in different dimensions, and in order to reach them one would have to travel, theoretically, through a black hole and exit in the other dimension through a white hole. These two holes would be connected by a wormhole, which will be discussed later.

One reason why white holes cannot exist in space is because they violate the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics says that any ordered system becomes more disorganized with time, and so a system which adds order, such as a white hole, is not at all possible (Wojcik).

A wormhole is a funnel in a region in space which connects two different places within the same space time or connects two asymptotically flat times (i.e. parallel universes). Wormholes, like white holes, are also purely hypothetical since it would require exotic matter, or matter with a negative energy density, to hold the tunnel open (Black Holes and Quasars). However, Einstein’s general theory of relativity allows for the existence of these since it states that any mass curves space time.

There are a few different types of theoretical wormholes. The Schwarzschild wormhole has an unstable throat and is connected to a black hole. This theoretical wormhole would be one where you could go past the black hole’s horizon without being torn apart by its tidal forces (Hamilton). As you travel further and further inside, you will eventually be able to see through the mouth on the other side, and eventually you would pass through the black hole, reach the white hole, and be spit out into a different universe.

Another type of wormhole is a Morris-Thorne wormhole. It differs in a few aspects from the Schwarzschild wormhole. First, this wormhole’s throat is more stable, and even though it still has an enormous tidal force at its mouth, it has no horizon. Because of this, it would only require planet size masses, which is much less than the other wormhole.

A Visser wormhole is formed by knitting together two ‘deep’ potential wells to form a throat. The inconvenience, though, is that it requires a lot of exotic matter to keep it open. Unlike a Morris-Throne or Schwarzschild wormhole, the Visser wormhole has significantly less tidal force due to this exotic matter.

The final type of wormhole is called an Ellis wormhole. There really aren’t many differences in this special case from the general case, other than that time flows smoother and the mouth is completely spherically symmetrical (Schimelpfenig).

Since wormholes would significantly shorten the amount of time it would take to travel from one point in space to another, many scientists have theoretically speculated that if any type of wormhole were connected to a black hole at one end and a white hole at another end, space travel would be possible (were these objects to exist).

As with every theoretical situation, there are problems that exist whilst considering the possibility. There are paradoxes, such as the Grandfather Paradox. Also, there are issues like an inconsistent casual loop and a consistent casual loop could occur and need to be considered.

“Imagine, you’re a time-travelling assassin, and your target just happens to be your own grandfather. So you pop through the nearest wormhole and walk up to an 18-year old version of your father’s father. You raise your laser blaster, but what happens when you pull the trigger? You haven’t been bon yet. Neither has your father. If you kill your own grandfather in the past, he’ll never have a son. That son will never have you and you’ll never happen to take that job as a time-travelling assassin. You wouldn’t exist to pull the trigger, thus negating the entire string of events.” (Bonsor and Lamb).

This is what is known as the Grandfather Paradox, and it is probably the most famous paradox relating to time travel. This sting of events is also called an inconsistent casual loop.

While considering the possible issues with time travel, one must also consider the idea of a consistent casual loop. According to physicist Paul Davies, such a loop might play out like this: a math professor travels into the future and steals a groundbreaking math theorem. The professor then gives the theorem to a promising student. Then, that promising student grows up to be the very person from whom the professor stole the theorem to begin with (Bonsor and Lamb). These issues and paradoxes make the thought of time travel an even more complicated possibility.

If time travel were to exist there would need to be black holes to act as an opening of a portal, a white hole, as an exit point of the portal, and a wormhole to act as a link between the two. While it is very interesting to theorize about how time travel could be possible, because of the different issues and paradoxes that would go along with it, time travel is a much more complex theoretical speculation than we had previously expected.

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Musings on the origin of species

    The question of origination has plagued scientific minds since the inception of man. Where did we come from? How did particles go from living to non-living? Using every principle of physics, chemistry, and biology, scientists have yet to come to a conclusion. There are many theories that have been applied to the question of the origin of species, and these are a few which are still applicable today.

 

  Panspermia was the first cited theory-being mentioned in the 5th century by a Greek philosopher by the name of Anaxagoras (The word panspermia is of Greek origin, meaning seeds everywhere.) The theory suggests that organisms originated on other planets, embedded themselves into chunks of rock, and eventually arrived on Earth via meteors. Once the matter was on Earth’s surface, it evolved into proteins from amino acids, and eventually evolved into life.

  Abiogenesis, also known as spontaneous generation, is another popular theory. It’s the idea that life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter. Simply put, life began in water as a result of the chemicals in the atmosphere and some form of energy to make amino acids, which would then evolve into all species. Early concepts of abiogenesis were extremely simplistic. –Rotting meat was soon covered in maggots, and so it was assumed the meat had evolved into maggots.—This was the most accepted scientific explanation for the reproduction of living things as recently as a few hundred years ago.

  Inorganic incubation is essentially the same theory as abiogenesis, with the exception of the formation order. Instead of the amino acids forming first, and then evolving to a cell-like structure, scientists had the idea the cell came first and was later filled with amino acids. It was thought the first cells were really not living, but inorganic ones made up of iron sulfide, and they were not formed at the Earth’s surface, but in totally darkness at the bottom of the oceans instead.

  Creationism is the theory that the universe and everything in existence was created by the will of a supernatural being. The pertinent verse in the Bible, Genesis 1:1, states: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth”. Following this proclaimation, the earth is presumed to have been created in a period of six days; and on the seventh day “he rested”. While there are various forms of creation theory, there are also many metaphysical systems besides the likes of Christianity which cite a form of “intelligent design”; the roots displayed in the first few verses of the Bible are adequate.

  Scientific evolution theory is arguably the most popular theory to date . This theory relies strongly on the Big Bang theory, which was the beginning of the formation of matter. This eventually lead to the creation of planets, Pangaea, and life on earth as it evolved over millions of years. The theory of evolution suggests that all living organisms come from the same ancestor. As the population grew into larger groups, smaller groups would break away and evolve independently to eventually diversify into a new species. *The Big Bang Theory is the idea that the universe originated sometime between 10 Ga and 20 Ga years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small volume of matter at extremely high density and temperatures. Long story short, the universe began with a super-powerful explosion, and continues to expand.*

  Despite the vast amount of widely varying theories which exist to explain the origin of life, contemporaries must resort conclusions derived from inductive reasoning only on the basis of probability, as there is still no definitive proof as to which theory (if any yet devised) are correct. Perhaps, if the human race manages to overcome the odds and extend it’s survival a few more decades, current theories will have either gained strength or the sanction of the scientific community. Rest assured, even if man enters another stone age, the spirit of curiosity which drives us toward questioning our existence will not cease until mankind has drawn it’s last breath and the last neuron has fired.